Nursing Research/Theory - Review Articles - SECONDARY SOURCE


Review articles summarize the current state of research on a subject by organizing, synthesizing, and critically evaluating the relevant literature. They tell what is currently known about an area under study and place what is known in context. This allows the researcher to see how their particular study fits into a larger picture.

Review articles are NOT original research articles. Instead, they are a summary of many other original research articles. When your teacher tells you to obtain an "original research article"or to use a primary source, do not use an article that says review.

Review articles may include a bibliography that will lead you back to the primary research reported in the article.

Example 1. Retrieved from PubMed

Lios WS, Yap OW, Chan JK, Westphal LM. Innovations in fertility preservation for patients with gynecologic cancers. Fertility and sterility. 2005 Dec; 84(6), 1561-73. Review.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To review options for fertility preservation in women with gynecologic cancers. DESIGN: Literature review. RESULT(S): We discuss the data regarding cancer treatment and fertility outcomes and current controversies for women with gynecologic cancers. CONCLUSION(S): Gynecologic cancers represent 12%-15% of cancers affecting women, and 21% of these are diagnosed in women of reproductive age. Current advances in our understanding of these diseases, along with improved multimodality treatment, allow for consideration of fertility options. For some women with gynecologic cancers, fertility-sparing treatment might be appropriate.

Example 2. Retrieved from PubMed

Seil E, Tangir J. Fertility preservation options for female patients with malignancies. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun 17(3),299-308. Review.

Abstract: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Preservation of fertility in female patients diagnosed with cancer has recently been an area of intensive investigation. This review summarizes available options and discusses recently published data concerning experimental methods. Specific strategies for fertility preservation in women with gynecologic malignancies are also presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Success with ovarian stimulation protocols using tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors has recently been reported for women with breast cancer who attempt embryo cryopreservation prior to chemotherapy. The first embryo transfer using oocytes retrieved from cryopreserved ovarian tissue implanted at a heterotopic location, the first pregnancy following orthotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue, and increasing success with oocyte cryopreservation were also reported. SUMMARY: Fertility preservation in female patients with cancer has become an important health issue due to increasing survival rates and delayed childbearing especially in Western countries. Radical vaginal trachelectomy for cervical cancer, conservative surgery for ovarian tumors, and progestin treatment in endometrial cancers may be considered at early stages in order to preserve fertility. Embryo cryopreservation is an established technique that is available for fertility preservation, providing a delay in the initiation of chemotherapy or radiotherapy is acceptable, and a partner or donor sperm is available. Additional techniques that could be offered after counseling the patient about their experimental nature include oocyte cryopreservation, ovarian cryopreservation, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist co-treatment with chemotherapy. Improvement of these techniques as well as better characterization of their success rates and risks await further investigation.

Example 3. Retrieved from PubMed

Davis M. Fertility considerations for female adolescent and young adult patients following cancer therapy: A guide for counseling patients and their families. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2006 Apr 10(2),213-9. Review.

Abstract:During the past 20 years, an increase in survival among pediatric patients with cancer has occurred, and a need exists to be proactive prior to cancer therapy regarding issues related to fertility. Chemotherapy and radiation can cause a number of deleterious side effects to female patients, including early menopause and its associated side effects of osteoporosis and heart disease as well as the inability to carry a pregnancy to term or conceive a child. Many drugs and fields of radiotherapy are associated with an increased incidence of female reproductive complications. Options are available for the preservation of female fertility, but many are experimental. Of highest importance is the need to counsel female adolescents and young adults before beginning induction chemotherapy or radiation. Nurses play a large part in the information about future fertility that female patients receive before the initiation of cancer therapy. After reading this article, nurses will have a better understanding of the impact of cancer therapy on the female reproductive system and be more comfortable discussing the topic with their patients.

Example 4. Retrieved from PubMed

Mitchell E, Moore K. Stroke: holistic care and management. Nurs Stand. 2004 Apr28-May 4 18(33),43-52.

Stroke can have a devastating effect on a patient's life and that of his or her family. This article discusses the causes and effects of stroke and outlines the role of the nurse in the rehabilitation of a patient after stroke with reference to the National Clinical Guidelines for Stroke .

Publication Types: Review